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Evaluating Sources

Tools and strategies for finding sources, evaluating them, and then citing them properly.

Source Evaluation Tips

Source Evaluation Tips

Evaluation Criteria

Does the information source you are evaluating pass the CRAAP Test?


  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Is there a date given for when the site was last updated?
  • Do the links still work?


  • Is the information meeting the needs of your research?
  • Who is the intended audience? 
  • Is the information covered at the appropriate level or do you need to consult additional sources?


  • Who is the author?
  • What are the author's or organization's credentials?
  • Is the author qualified to write on this topic?
  • Is there any way to contact the author directly?


  • Where does the information come from and is it supported by evidence?
  • Can the information be verified in other sources?
  • Does the author use unbiased language that is free of emotion?
  • Is the information trying to persuade the opinion of the audience?
  • Are there any spelling or other typographical errors on the page?


  • Is the purpose of the site clear?
  • Is it designed to sell you something? Inform? Persuade?
  • Are there any political, institutional, cultural, or personal biases present?

The CRAAP acronym and descriptions are from the Meriam Library at California State University Chico.

Video: Evaluating Information

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