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APA Citation Style 7th Edition

Resources for learning how to cite your sources using APA Style 7th Edition guidelines.

Basic In-Text Citation Styles (7th Edition)

Basic In-Text Citation Styles


Journal Articles (7th edition)







Periodical Information DOI or URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

Author, C. C. [username].



(2020, January).

(2020, February 16).

Title of article.

Title of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14.

Title of Periodical, 2(1-2), Article 12.

Title of Periodical.


  • If a journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference.
  • If the journal article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range (for an explanation of why, see the database information page). The reference in this case is the same as for a print journal article.
  • Do not include database information in the reference unless the journal article comes from a database that publishes original, proprietary content, such as UpToDate (see an example on the official APA Style database information page).
  • If the journal article does not have a DOI but does have a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online journal that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.

Reference List

With DOI:

  • Claverie, E. (2019). Folklore, fakelore, scholars, and shills: Superheroes as “Myth”. The Journal of Popular Culture, 52(5), 976-998.

Print Version or Without a DOI from Research Database:

  • Claverie, E. (2019). Folklore, fakelore, scholars, and shills: Superheroes as “Myth”. The Journal of Popular Culture, 52(5), 976-998.


In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation:

  • Paraphrase: (Claverie, 2019)
  • Quotation: (Claverie, 2019, p. 977)

Narrative citation: Claverie (2019)

Reference List:

With DOI: 

  • Zeilani, R., & Seymour, J. E. (2012). Muslim women's narrative about bodily change and care during critical illness: A qualitative study. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship44(1), 99-107.

Print Version or Without a DOI from a Research Database:

  • Zeilani, R., & Seymour, J. E. (2012). Muslim women's narratives about bodily change and care during critical illness: A qualitative study. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship44(1), 99-107.


In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation: 

  • Paraphrase: (Zeilani & Seymour, 2012)
  • Quotation: (Zeilani & Seymour, 2012, p. 105)

Narrative citation: Zeilani & Seymour, (2012)

Reference List

With DOI:

  • Westhues, A., Lafrance, J., & Schmidt, G. (2001). A SWOT analysis of social work education in Canada. Social Work Education, 20(1), 35-56.

Print Version or Without a DOI from a Research Database:

  • Westhues, A., Lafrance, J., & Schmidt, G. (2001). A SWOT analysis of social work education in Canada. Social Work Education, 20(1), 35-56.


Tips for Multiple Authors

Provide surnames and initials for up to and including 20 authors. When there are two to 20 authors, use an ampersand before the final author's name.

  • Example: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.

When there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but not ampersand), and then add the final author's name.

  • Example: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.


In-Text Citation

NOTE: When a work has three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity. For more information, see Sections 8.17 & 8.18 of the APA Style Manual (7th Edition).

Parenthetical citation: 

  • Paraphrase: (Westhues et al., 2001)
  • Quotation: ​(Westhues et al., 2001, p. 40)

Narrative citation: Westhues et al. (2001)

A work is treated as having no author when its author is unknown or cannot reasonably be determined. In this case, move the title of the work to the author position (followed by a period), before the date of publication.


Reference List

Generalized anxiety disorder. (2019).


In-Text Citations

  • For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.
  • Italicize the title in the in-text citation if the title of the work is italicized in the reference list.
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks around the title.
  • Capitalize these titles in the text using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry.
  • If the title is long, shorten for in-text citation.

Book with no author: (Interpersonal Skills, 2019)

Magazine article with no author: ("Understanding Sensory Memory," 2018)

Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Magazine Articles (7th editions)

Reference List


Magazine Article with DOI:

Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science365(6457), 981–982.


From an Online Magazine:

Schulman, M. (2019, September 9). Superfans: A love story. The New Yorker

In-Text Citation

  • Parenthetical citations: 
    • Paraphrase: (Schaefer & Shapiro, 2019; Schulman, 2019)
    • Quotation: (Schaefer and Shapiro, 2019, p. 981)
  • Narrative citations: Schaefer and Shapiro (2019) and Schulman (2019)

Newspaper Articles (7th edition)

Reference List


Print Newspaper Article

Wallace, K. (2007, December 4). Passport applicant finds massive privacy breach.

          The Globe and Mail, pp. A1, A8.

Online Newspaper Article

Severson, K., & Martin, A. (2009, March 3). It's organic, but does that mean it's safer? The New York Times.

   Retrieved from


In-Text Citation


Print Newspaper Article

Parenthetical citations:

  • Paraphrase: (Wallace, 2007)​​
  • Quotation: (Wallace, 2007, p. A8)

Narrative citations: Wallace (2007)


Online Newspaper Article

Parenthetical citations:

  • Paraphrase: (Severson & Martin, 2009)
  • Quotation: (Severson & Martin, 2009)

Narrative citations: Severson (2009)


DOIs and URLs (7th edition)

The DOI or URL is the final component of a reference list entry. Because so much scholarship is available and/or retrieved online, most reference list entries end with either a DOI or a URL.

  • DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works.
  • URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.

When to Include DOIs and URLs

Follow these guidelines for including DOIs and URLs in references:

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
  • If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include any DOI or URL in the reference.
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
  • If an online work has a URL but no DOI, include the URL in the reference as follows:
    • For works without DOIs from websites (not including academic research databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
    • For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.

DOI Format

  • Follow the current recommendations of the International DOI Foundation to format DOIs in the reference list, which as of the current APA Style Manual is as follows:

  • The string “” is a way of presenting a DOI as a link, and “xxxxx” refers to the DOI number.
  • The preferred format of the DOI has changed over time. Although older works use previous formats (e.g., “http:/” or “doi:” or “DOI:” before the DOI number), in your reference list, standardize DOIs into the current preferred format for all entries. For example, use in your reference even though that article, published in 2016, presented the number in an older format.
  • Copy and paste the DOI or URL from your web browser directly into your reference list to avoid transcription errors. Do not change the capitalization or punctuation of the DOI or URL. Do not add line breaks manually to the hyperlink; it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically adds a break or moves the hyperlink to its own line.
  • Do not add a period after the DOI or URL because this may interfere with link functionality.




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