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APA Citation Style 7th Edition

Resources for learning how to cite your sources using APA Style 7th Edition guidelines.

General Book Format (7th edition)


Author or Editor





Publisher Information DOI or URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

Editor, E. E. (Ed.).

Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.).


Title of book.

Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4).

Title of book [Audiobook].

Title of book (E. E. Editor, Ed.).

Title of book (T. Translator, Trans.; N. Narrator, Narr.).

Publisher Name.

First Publisher Name; Second Publisher Name.


  • Use the same formats for both print books and ebooks. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.
  • If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include the publisher location.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research database, end the book reference after the publisher name. Generally, you do not include database information, however, exceptions do occur.

Reference List

With DOI:

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

Print Version or Without DOI from Research Database:

Woods, G. (2001). English grammar for dummies. Hungry Minds.


In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation:

  • Paraphrase: (Woods, 2011)
  • Quotation: (Woods, 2011, p. 15)

Narrative citation: Woods (2011)

NOTE: If there is an editor instead of an author, you would simply insert the editor's name in the place where the author's name is now, followed by (Ed.).  The rest of the format would remain the same.

Reference List

Burley, J., & Harris, J. (Eds.). (2002). A companion to genethics. Blackwell.


In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citations:

  • Paraphrase: (Burley & Harris, 2002)
  • Quotation: (Burley & Harris, 2002, p. 153)

Narrative citations: Burley & Harris (2002)

Reference List

Johnson, N. G., Roberts, M. C., & Worell, J. (Eds.). (1999). Beyond appearance: A new look at adolescent girls. American Psychological Association.


In-Text Citations

Parenthetical citations:

  • Paraphrase: (Johnson et al., 1999)
  • Quotation: (Johnson et al., 1999, p. 72)

Narrative citations: Johnson et al. (1999)

A work is treated as having no author when its author is unknown or cannot reasonably be determined. In this case, move the title of the work to the author position (followed by a period), before the date of publication.


Reference List

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Merriam-Webster.


In-Text Citations

  • For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.
  • Italicize the title in the in-text citation if the title of the work is italicized in the reference list.
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks around the title.
  • Capitalize these titles in the text using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry.
  • If the title is long, shorten for in-text citation.

Book with no author: (Interpersonal Skills, 2019)

Magazine article with no author: ("Understanding Sensory Memory," 2018)

Anonymous as Author

In the rare case that "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book (7th edition)

Citation Template


Chapter Author




Chapter Title

Edited Book Information DOI or URL

Author. A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

(2020). Title of chapter.

In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. 3-13). Publisher Name.

In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 212-255. Publisher Name.



Reference List

Lawrence, J. A., &  Dodds, A. E. (2003). Goal-directed activities and life-span development. In J. Valsiner & K. Connolly (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychology (pp. 517-533). Sage Publications.


In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation:

  • Paraphrase: (Lawrence & Dodds, 2003)
  • Quotation: (Lawrence & Dodds, 2003 p. 520)

Narrative citation: Lawrence & Dodds (2003)

Article in a Reference Book (7th edition)

Reference List

Lindgren, H. C. (1994). Stereotyping. In Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 468-469). Wiley.


In-Text Citation

Parenthetical citation:

  • Paraphrase: (Lindgren, 1994)
  • Quotation: (Lindgren, 1994, p. 468)

Narrative citation: Lindgren (2019)

E-Books (7th edition)

Reference List

With DOI:

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

  • Parenthetical in-text citation:
    • Paraphrase: (Brown, 2019)
    • Quotation: (Brown, 2019, p. 41)
  • Narrative in-text citation: Brown (2019)

Without DOI From a Research Database or Print Version:

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

  • Parenthetical in-text citation:
    • Paraphrase: (Burgess, 2019)
    • Quotation: (Burgess, 2019, p. 120)
  • Narrative in-text citation: Burgess (2019)

Reference List

With DOI:

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association.

  • Parenthetical in-text citation:
    • Paraphrase: (Aron et al., 2019)
    • Quotation: (Aron et al., 2019, p. 348)
  • Narrative in-text citation: Aron et al. (2019)

If the e-book does not have a DOI, follow the example for a print book.

The DOI or URL is the final component of a reference list entry. Because so much scholarship is available and/or retrieved online, most reference list entries end with either a DOI or a URL.

  • DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works.
  • URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.

When to Include DOIs and URLs

Follow these guidelines for including DOIs and URLs in references:Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.

  • If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include any DOI or URL in the reference.
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
  • If an online work has a URL but no DOI, include the URL in the reference as follows:
    • For works without DOIs from websites (not including academic research databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
    • For works without DOIs from most academic research databasesdo not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.

Edition of a Book other than the First (7th edition)

Second edition = 2nd ed.
Third edition = 3rd ed.
Fourth edition = 4th ed.
Revised edition = Rev. ed.


Reference List

Harris, L. A. (2001). Canadian copyright law (3rd ed.)McGraw Hil Ryerson.


In-Text Citations

Parenthetical citations: 

  • Paraphrase: (Harris, 2001)
  • Quotation: (Harris, 2001, p. 50)

Narrative citation: Harris (2001)

Translation (7th edition)

If there is an editor instead of an author, you would simply insert the editor's name in the place where the author's name is now, followed by (Ed.). The rest of the format would remain the same.


Reference List

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).


In-Text Citations

Parenthetical citatations:

  • Paraphrase: (Laplace, 1814/1951)
  • Quotation: (Laplace, 1814/1951, p. 148)

Narrative citation: Laplace (1814/1951)

Government Publication (7th edition)

APA Citation Style does not have a separate category for government publications.  According to APA, government documents can be considered Books, Technical/Research Reports or Brochures.

Helpful Tips

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition (2020)

  • Treat a government document as a book, report, or brochure.
  • If a person is named on the title page, use her or him as author.
  • If no person is named, use the government agency, department, or branch as a group author (Ex. 50, p. 329).
  • Give the name of the group author exactly as it appears on the title page. If the branch or agency is not well known, include its higher department first.
  • When the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher from the source element (p. 329).
  • If there is a series or report number, include it after the title (p. 329).
  • The specific agency responsible for the report appears as the author. The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher. This creates concise in-text citations and complete reference list entries.


1. Report by Individual Authors at a Government Agency or Other Organization

Gilmore, J., Woollam, P., Campbell, T., McLean, B., Roch, J., & Stephens, T. (1999). Statistical report on the health of Canadians: Prepared by the Federal, Provincial and Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health. Health Canada, Statistics Canada, Canadian Institute for Health Information.

Parenthetical citations:

  • Paraphrase: (Gilmore et al., 1999)
  • Quotation: (Gilmore et al., 1999, p. 5)

Narrative citation: Gilmore et al. (1999)


2. Report by Government Agency or Other Organization

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Parenthetical citations:

  • Paraphrase: (National Cancer Institute, 2019)
  • Quotation: (National Cancer Institute, 2019, p. 24)

Narrative citation: National Cancer Institute (2019)

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