To access Safari eBooks,
Parenthetical citations: (Y. Martel, personal communication, April 15, 2005)
Narrative citations: E. M. Paradis (personal communication, August, 2019)
If you read, watch, or listen to an interview conducted by someone else, you should pick the reference format for the source (magazine, newspaper, recorded radio broadcast, podcast episode, or TV show).
Since the name of the person interviewed may not necessarily appear in the citation, you may integrate the person's name into the narrative of your paper.
Dr. Robert Watson stated, "People think we know all there is to know about history. We don't know the half of it" (Laird et al., 2019-Present).
Laird, N., Oron, D., & Ryan, N. (Executive Producers). (2019-Present). Secret Nazi ruins [TV series]. Go Button Media.
Parenthetical citations: (Laird et al., 2019-Present)
Narrative citations: Laird et al. (2019-Present)
Use the following format to cite a report on a company intranet when writing an internal company report. Because this company intranet requires users to log in, provide the homepage URL of the intranet rather than the full URL of the work.
American Psychological Association. (2019). Policies & procedures manual. https://apa750.sharepoint.com
Narrative Citation: American Psychological Association (2019)
NOTE: If the work is for professional publication or intended for a wider audience who will not have access to these sources, cite the source as a personal communication. Personal communications include emails, text messages, online chats or direct messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures, memos, letters, messages from nonarchived discussion groups or online bulletin boards, and so on. More info about personal communications can be found using the link below.
|Publisher Information||DOI or URL|
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
Name of Group.
Editor, E. E. (Ed.).
Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.).
Title of book.
Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4).
Title of book [Audiobook].
Title of book (E. E. Editor, Ed.).
Title of book (T. Translator, Trans.; N. Narrator, Narr.).
First Publisher Name; Second Publisher Name.
Classical works and and works of classical literature are treated as republished works.
For ancient Greek or Roman works, include the copyright date of the version used in the date element and the date of the original (ancient) publication in parentheses at the end of the entry. When the date of original publication is approximate, use the abbreviation "ca." (which stands for "circa").
Aristotle. (1994). Poetics (S. H. Butcher, Trans.). The Internet Classics Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/poetics. html (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.)
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)
The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.
Parenthetical citations: (Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E./1994); (King James Bible, 1769/2017); (The Qu'ran, 2004)
Narrative citations: Aristotle (ca. 350 B.C.E/1994); King James Bible (1769/2017); The Qu'ran (2004)
Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report.
In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in your References.
The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.